It is generally accepted that infants and children can and do feel pain comparable to that in adults. Research into the nature, assessment, and treatment of pediatric pain has grown rapidly, and numerous drug and non-drug interventions have been developed and tested in a variety of clinical populations and settings. However, inadequate prevention and relief of pediatric pain are still widespread.

Physical and psychological responses to pain not only affect children’s health directly, but also may predispose them to develop chronic pain in adulthood. The large number of available interventions may be a source of confusion when it comes to selecting the best for each child and situation. This section focuses on providing the most appropriate, cost effective, and evidence-based treatments, taking into account all components of the child’s pain experience.